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Switch (transpose) columns and rows in Excel

Hi Webies after some gap I'm here with some new articles, Most of the guys are already 
aware of this feature of transpose that is present in Microsoft Excel.

Transposing data is nothing but switching the columns and rows or vice versa.

I am writing this post, because one of my friend got some troubles copying 
and pasting (switching manually). This process will kill your time when you do it 
manually. But excel has built in functionality for  this transposing. 

So here we go...

If data is entered in columns or rows, but you want to rearrange that data into rows or columns instead, you can quickly transpose the data from one to the other.
For example, the regional sales data that is organized in columns appears in rows after transposing the data, as shown in the following graphics.
Data in columns
Regional data in rows
  1. On the worksheet, do the following:
    • To rearrange data from columns to rows, select the cells in the columns that contain the data.
    • To rearrange data from rows to columns, select the cells in the rows that contain the data.
  2. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy Button image.
    The Clipboard group on the Home tab
    Keyboard shortcut  To copy the selected data, you can also press CTRL+C.
    NOTE   You can only use the Copy command to rearrange the data. To complete this procedure successfully, do not use the Cut Button image command.
  3. On the worksheet, select the first cell of the destination rows or columns into which you want to rearrange the copied data.
    NOTE   Copy areas and paste areas cannot overlap. Make sure that you select a cell in a paste area that falls outside of the area from which you copied the data.
  4. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow below Paste, and then click Transpose.
  5. After the data is transposed successfully, you can delete the data in the copy area.
TIP   If the cells that you transpose contain formulas, the formulas are transposed and cell references to data in transposed cells are automatically adjusted. To make sure that formulas continue to refer correctly to data in nontransposed cells, use absolute references in the formulas before you transpose them.


Add Background Image in Excel

Hello Webies!!!
As we all Know We can insert an Image in Word, PowerPoint, Excel very easily.Excel spreadsheets largely consist of nos, charts, tables etc. You can give a creative touch to Ur work in Excel  by adding background image to Excel spreadsheet. By Using this thing,you can make it look less boring & much more interesting.
Simply Follow the Steps :
Step 1) Open  Excel spreadsheet to which you would like to add the background image.

Step 2)
Select “Page Layout” from the ribbon.

Step 3)
Click on Background.
Sheet Background window will appear. Select the image which you want to add as the background.
Click on Insert.

Add Dropdown list in Excel

If you're creating a worksheet that will require user input and you want to minimize data entry errors, use Excel's data validation feature to add a drop-down list. The best part about it is that you don't have to write any macros.
Data validation is an excellent way to ensure that a cell entry is of the proper data type (text, number, or date) and within the proper numeric range. The drop-down list produced with the feature appears when a user clicks the cell.
Here's how to create a drop-down list:
  1. Type the list of valid entries in a single column. If you like, you can hide this column (select Format, Column, Hide).
  2. Select the cell or cells that will display the list of entries.
  3. Choose Data, Validation, and select the Settings tab.
  4. From the Allow drop-down list, select List.
  5. In the Source box, enter a range address or a reference to the items that you entered in step 1.
  6. Make sure the 'In-cell dropdown' box is selected.
  7. Click OK.
If your list is short, you can skip step 1 and type the list entries directly in the Source box in step 5, separating items with a comma.
The Data Validation dialog box has two other tabs. Click Input Message to add a prompt that will appear when a user selects a cell. Click Error Alert to specify a custom error message if the user's entry is invalid.
The handy data validation feature suffers from one serious flaw. If you paste an entry into a cell that uses data validation, the validation isn't performed. And if you select that cell again, the drop-down list no longer appears. Fortunately, you can circumvent this problem by protecting the worksheet: Select Tools, Protection, Protect Sheet.

Defect Detection and Defect Prevention

Hi Webies, in the below article I'm going to explain what is Defect Detection and Defect Prevention.
And also Role of a tester in doing the same.

What is Defect Detection????

In Defect detection, role of a tester include Implementing the most appropriate approach/strategy for testing ,preparation/execution of effective test cases and conducting the necessary tests like - exploratory testing, functional testing, etc.
To increase the defect detection rate, tester should have complete understanding of the application. Ad hoc /exploratory testing should go in parallel with the test case execution as a lot of bugs can be found through that means. 

What is Defect Prevention????

In Defect prevention, developers plays an important role. In this phase Developers do activities like – code reviews/static code analysis, unit testing, etc. Testers are also involved in defect prevention by reviewing specification documents. Studying the specification document is an art. While studying specification documents, testers encounter various queries. And many times it happens that with those queries, requirement document gets changed/updated.
Developers often neglect primary ambiguities in specification documents in order to complete the project; or they fail to identify them when they see them. Those ambiguities are then built into the code and represent a bug when compared to the end-user's needs. This is how testers help in defect prevention. 

Look and Feel Testing

Look and feel testing looks similar to usability testing but on reality it’s not.
Look and feel testing is not a usability testing. The testing of the appearance and GUI aspects of an application is referred as look and feel testing.
A website may perfectly well be working in one particular environment but always not be effective in other environment. This variation in environment can broadly be divided in into three categories:

Display Settings: - Different websites give different look and feel on different monitor and display settings.

Browser Settings: - A browser is software that always grants you to use, browse, or stuff the internet. Not only different browsers affect the appearance (look and feel) of disparate websites, also the different versions of the same browser cause the differences.

Considering example, the DHTML page looks different in version 4 of Netscape as compared to version 6 of the same browser. 
Operating Systems/Platforms: - Apart from different display settings and use of different browsers, websites also behave differently in different operating systems/platforms.

There are ranges of platforms available in the world, usually categorized in PC, Unix/Linux and Macintosh, which cause the difference in the appearance of websites.


Positive Testing And Negative Testing With Example

Positive Testing is nothing but the name suggests, the tester test the application from positive mind.

Testing the application with valid input and data is known as positive testing

Positive testing: - A test which is designed to check that application is correctly working. Here the aim of tester is to pass affecting application, sometimes it is obviously called as clean testing, and that is “test to pass”.

When tester test the application from negative point of mind than it is known as negative testing.

Testing the application always with invalid input and data is known as negative testing.

Example of positive testing is given below:

Considering example length of password defined in requirements is 6 to 20 characters, and whenever we check the application by giving alphanumeric characters on password field “between” 6 to 20 characters than it is positive testing, because we test the application with valid data/ input.

Example of negative testing is given below:

Considering example as we know phone no field does not accept the alphabets and special characters it obviously accepts numbers, but if we type alphabets and special characters on phone number field to check it accepts the alphabets and special characters or not than it is negative testing.

For a good test of the application the tester need to do the both positive and negative testing.


What is Gray Box Testing

Webies as name suggest Gray box testing is the combination of both black box and white box testing....

For difference between black box and white box testing check the articile here

TOP 10 Difference between Black Box and White Box Testing

Coming back to Gray box Testing , It is platform independent and language independent technique.
Gray box testing is used to test the embedded system.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts

Gray box testing will test the functionality and behavioral properties of the application. The Tester should
have the knowledge of both the internals and externals of the function.
If the tester know something about how the product works on the inside, you can test it better from the outside.   

Gray box testing is especially important with Web and Internet applications, because the Internet is built around loosely integrated components that connect via relatively well-defined interfaces. Unless you understand the architecture of the Net, your testing will be skin deep.  

TOP 10 Difference between Black Box and White Box Testing

Hi Webies today I'm gonna give you 10 important difference between white box testing and black box testing. This question will be sure for any testing Interview be it manual or automation.

If you want to know the different types of testing Read the article here..

Software Testing Types

And here are the top 10 difference between black box and white box....

Black Box Testing -
Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing. Tests are based on requirements and functionality.

1) In this testing knowledge of programming is not necessarily essential.

2) Normally independent software testers are responsible for doing this type of testing.

3) In this form of testing Knowledge of implementation is not required.

4) In this testing testers may or may not be technically sound.

5) In this sort of testing testers mainly focuses on the functionality of the system.

6) This testing is done by testers.

7) This type of testing always focuses on what is performing/ carried out.

8) In Black Box Testing no knowledge regarding internal logic of code is needed means no
     need of programming is necessary

9) Other names of this testing include means synonyms of black box testing are testing
     regarding functionality means Functional testing, Behavioral testing, and
     Opaque-box/ Closed-box testing that is the reason why in this testing no knowledge of
     programming is needed

10) Black box testing means functional test or external test 

White Box Testing -
This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Also known as Glass box Testing. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.

1) In this form of testing knowledge of programming is must means it is essential.

2) Normally software developers are responsible for doing this type of testing.

3) In this sort of testing developers mainly focuses on the structure means
     program/code of the system

4) In this form of testing Implementation knowledge is required.

5) Normally software developers are doing the white box testing but if it is performed by
     software testers than testers should be technically sound

6) This testing is mostly done by developers.

7) This type of testing always focuses on how it is performing/ carried out.

8) In White Box Testing knowledge regarding internal logic of code is needed means need
     of programming is mandatory

9) Other names of this testing include means synonyms of white box testing are testing
     regarding code means Structural testing, Glass-box/ Clear-box testing, Open-box
     testing/ Transparent-box testing, Logic-driven testing and Path-oriented testing that
     is the reason why in this testing knowledge of programming is needed

10) White box testing means structural test or interior test. 

Difference between GUI Testing and Usability Testing

Difference between GUI Testing and Usability Testing

                    GUI Testing
                     Usability testing
1. In GUI Testing tester tests the application front end design to see whether its meets the client requirements or not.
1. In Usability Testing tester tests that whether the application is user friendly or not by checking how easily user can access the application.
2. In GUI Testing we check whether the design and layout of application as per the standards and client requirements or not.
2. In Usability Testing we check whether the design and layout of application is easy to use or not means it is user friendly or not.
3. GUI Testing is more concerned with look and feel of the application means how people react and feel after look in to the application so its testing is done accordingly that.
3. Usability Testing is more concerned with easiness and user friendliness of the application means how people react after using the application means application is easy to use or not so it’s testing is done accordingly that.
4. In GUI Testing tester tests the appearance of the software.
4. In Usability Testing tester tests the easiness to use the software.
5. GUI Testing is done to ensure it meets the design specifications like links, colors, fonts, font sizes, fields etc are displayed as specified in SRS or as specified in client requirements.
5. Usability Testing is done to ensure that the GUI is well designed and easy to use like links and buttons are easily clickable and leaving any of the mandatory field blank gives the proper message that please enter the xyz in mandatory field.
6. GUI Testing is done by keeping in mind the look and feel of application means how application looks.
6. Usability Testing is done by keeping the end user in mind.
7. It stands for Graphical User Interface. It is nothing its only confirm the design specifications with the application.
7. It is done to ensure that the GUI is well designed and easy to use.
8. It is done on different platforms to verify the Look and Feel Testing. (Look and Feel of the application).
8. It is done to verify how much the application is user friendly to an end user.
9. In GUI Testing, tester test whether the front end design of the system is meeting with project standards or not.
9. In Usability Testing, tester tests whether the control flow of the system is convenient for end user or not.
10. In this testing we just test the appearance of the application.
10. In this testing we test the interaction of functionality with the user is effective or not.
11. Example: Example includes colors, fonts, font sizes, buttons, links, icons, placement of data labels and fields etc. are displayed as specified or not.
11. Example: Example includes firstly displayed all mandatory fields, cursor positioning for enter the data into the right field, tab button should work easily etc.
12. In GUI Testing we only focus on the interface of the application.
12. Quality of product is depending on Usability Testing.
13. In this testing we test only the front end of the application.
13. In this Testing we test the overall working of application according to a non-technical user’s point of view.

What is DataBase Testing

For almost all testing interviews, this will be one of the core questions....

What is Database Testing?
Database testing involves the tests to check the exact values which have been retrieved from the database by the web or desktop application. Data should be matched correctly as per the records are stored in the database.

How to Test Database?
Database testing is one of the major testing which requires tester to expertise in checking tables, writing queries and procedures. Testing can be performed in web application or desktop and database can be used in the application like SQL or Oracle. There are many projects like banking, finance, health insurance which requires extensive database testing. Below is the discussed point that how to test database: Database Testing

  • First of all, tester should make sure that he understands all the application totally and which database is being used with the testing application.
  • Figure out all the tables which exist for the application and try to write all the database queries for the tables to execute since there are many things which are really complex, so you can take the assistance of developers and figure out the queries. Test each and every table carefully for the data added. This is the best process for the testers to perform the DB testing, it can be done for any application and it does not matter application is small or big.
  • If things are really complex then tester can obtain the query from the developer to test the appropriate functionality.
Database is the spine of the application and tester should make sure to test very carefully. It requires skill, proficiency and sound knowledge.

What to Test in a Database?

  • Check all the functionality which is happening on every action performed in the application. Actions can include deletion, addition or save options. Check whether the added record is added in the DB with the exact value. Check the deleted record gets removed from the database. These are major roles which need to be monitored seriously.
  • Nowadays database is getting more complex due to the business logic which plays an important role for the applications. Tester should make sure that values have been added correctly after the implementation of the business rules.
Hence, these are the above mentioned basic things that how and what to test in a database. Database testing is really a complex task and it should always be performed if tester is much experienced in this field.

More on Database Testing -

Basis of Structure Testing ---- V MODEL --- ExcelAutomate

What is Structure Testing??????

" The structural testing is the testing of the structure of the system or component."

* Structural testing can be used at all levels of testing. Developers use structural testing in component testing
   and component integration testing, especially where there is good tool support for code coverage.
   Structural testing is also used in system and acceptance testing, but the structures are different. For
   example, the coverage of menu options or major business transactions could be the structural element in
   system or acceptance testing.

* In structural testing the testers are required to have the knowledge of the internal implementations of the
   code. Here the testers require knowledge of how the software is implemented, how it works. 

* During structural testing the tester is concentrating on how the software does it. For example, a structural
   technique wants to know how loops in the software are working. Different test cases may be derived to
   exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the

*  Structural testing is often referred to as ‘white box’ or ‘glass box’ or ‘clear-box testing’ because in
    structural testing we are interested in what is happening ‘inside the system/application’

Basis of Structured Testing --- V MODEL 


 V Model is the basis of Structured Testing.

The left side shows the classic software life cycle (SDLC) & Right side shows the verification and validation for Each Phase.

Analyze User requirements
End users express their whish for a solution for one or more problems they have. In testing you have to start preparation of your user tests at this moment!

You should do test preparation sessions with your acceptance testers. Ask them what cases they want to test. It might help you to find good test cases if you interview end users about the every day cases they work on. Ask them for difficulties they meet in every days work now.

Give feedback about the results of this preparation (hand the list of real life cases, the questions) to the analyst team. Or even better, invite the analyst team to the test preparation sessions. They will learn a lot!

System requirements
One or more analysts interview end users and other parties to find out what is really wanted. They
write down what they found out and usually this is reviewed by Development/Technical Team, end users and third parties.
In testing you can start now by breaking the analyses down into 'features to test'. One 'feature to test' can only have 2 answers: 'pass' or 'fail'. One analysis document will have a number of features to test. Later this will be extremely useful in your quality reporting!

Look for inconsistency and things you don't understand in the analysis documents. There’s a good chance that if you don't understand it, neither will the developers.  Give Feedback your questions and remarks to the analyst team.  This is a second review delivered by testing in order to find the bug as early as possible!

Lets discuss Left side of V Model: - Global and detailed design
Development translates the analysis documents into technical design.

- Code / Build
Developers program the application and build the application.

- Note: In the classic waterfall software life cycle testing would be at the end of the life cycle.  The V-model is a little different. We already added some testing review to it.
The right side shows the different testing levels :
- Component & Component integration testing
These are the tests development performs to make sure that all the issues of the technical and functional analysis is implemented properly.

- Component testing (unit testing)
   Every time a developer finishes a part of the application he should test this to see if it works properly.

- Component integration testing
   Once a set of application parts is finished, a member of the Development team should test to verify whether the different parts do what they have to do.

 Once these tests pass successfully, system testing can start.

- System and System integration testing
In this testing level we are going to check whether the features to test, destilated from the analyses documents, are realised properly. 

Best results will be achieved when these tests are performed by professional testers.

- System testing
   In this testing level each part (use case, screen description) is tested apart.  

- System integration testing
   Different parts of the application now are tested together to examine the quality of the application.  This is an important (but sometimes difficult) step.  

Typical stuff to test: navigation between different screens, background processes started in one screen, giving a certain output (PDF, updating a database, consistency in GUI,...).

System integration testing also involves testing the interfacing with other systems.  E.g. if you have a web shop, you probably will have to test whether the integrated Online payment services works.

These interface tests are usually not easy to realise, because you will have to make arrangements with parties outside the project group.

- Acceptance testing
Here real users (= the people who will have to work with it) validate whether this application is what they really wanted. 

This comic explains why end users need to accept the application:

This is what actually Client Needs :-(

During the project a lot off interpretation has to be done.  The analyst team has to translate the wishes of the customer into text.  Development has to translate these to program code. Testers have to interpret the analysis to make features to test list. 

Tell somebody a phrase. Make him tell this phrase to another person. And this person to another one... Do this 20 times.  You'll be surprised how much the phrase has changed!

This is exactly the same phenomenon you see in software development!  

Let the end users test the application with the real cases you listed up in the test preparation sessions. Ask them to use real life cases!

And - instead of getting angry - listen when they tell you that the application is not doing what it should do.  They are the people who will suffer the applications shortcomings for the next couple of years. They are your customer!

Reference : ISTQB, softwaretestingtimes.

SQL Interview Questions for Testers

Hi webies, rather than automation articles, I thought to give some important Interview questions and answers to my readers who are going for interview or looking for a job change....

So going forward I will post the Interview questions also in the blog...

Today I'm going to give some important SQL questions for Manual / Automation Testers faces during interview...

go through this questions and comment if you face any doubts.

Q. Difference between TRUNCATE, DELETE and DROP commands?

A. The DELETE command is used to remove 'some or all rows from a table.
TRUNCATE removes ALL rows from a table. The operation cannot be rolled back
The DROP command removes a table from the database. All the tables' rows, indexes and privileges will also be removed.

Q: Describe SQL comments.

A. SQL comments are introduced by two consecutive hyphens (--) and ended by the end of the line. 

Q. Which of the following statements are Data Manipulation Language commands?

Ans. A and B. The INSERT and UPDATE statements are Data Manipulation Language (DML) commands. GRANT is a Data Control Language (DCL) command. TRUNCATE and CREATE are Data Definition Language (DDL) commands

Q. Is the WHERE clause must appear always before the GROUP BY clause in SQL SELECT ?

A. Yes. The proper order for SQL SELECT clauses is: SELECT, FROM, WHERE, GROUP BY, HAVING, ORDER BY. Only the SELECT and FROM clause are mandatory. 

Q. Write SQL SELECT query that returns the first and last name of each instructor, the Salary, and gives each of them a number.

A. SELECT FirstName, LastName, Salary, ROWNUM FROM Instructors;

Q. What is DML and DDL?

A.DML and DDL are subsets of SQL. DML stands for Data Manipulation Language and DDL – Data Definition Language.
DDL commands

Q. Write a SQL SELECT query that only returns each city only once from Students table? Do you need to order this list with an ORDER BY clause?


Q. Can one select a random collection of rows from a table?

A.Yes. Using SAMPLE clause. Example:
10% of rows selected randomly will be returned.

Q. What is Trigger?

A. Trigger will execute a block of procedural code against the database when a table event occurs. A2. A trigger defines a set of actions that are performed in response to an insert, update, or delete operation on a specified table. When such an SQL operation is executed, in this case the trigger has been activated.

Q. What is Normalization?

A. The process of table design is called normalization.

Q. Describe how NULLs work in SQL?

A.The NULL is how SQL handles missing values. Arithmetic operation with NULL in SQL will return a NULL.

Q. What is the highest value that can be stored in a BYTE data field?

A. The highest value that can be stored in a BYTE field is 255. or from -128 to 127. Byte is a set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made. Each Char requires one byte of memory and can have a value from 0 to 255 (or 0 to 11111111 in binary).

Q. List all the possible values that can be stored in a BOOLEAN data field.

A.There are only two values that can be stored in a BOOLEAN data field: -1(true) and 0(false).

Q. Can a table have more than one foreign key defined?

A. A table can have any number of foreign keys defined. It can have only one primary key defined.  

Q. What is the main role of a primary key in a table?

A. The main role of a primary key in a data table is to maintain the internal integrity of a data table. 

Q. What are foreign keys?

A. Foreign key field is a field that links one table to another table’s primary or foreign key. 

Q. What is a primary key?

A. The column (columns) that has completely unique data throughout the table is known as the primary key field.

Q. What does COMMIT do?

A. Saving all changes made by DML statements 

Q. What is a join?

A.Join is a process of retrieve pieces of data from different sets (tables) and returns them to the user or program as one “joined” collection of data.

Q. How do you select all records from the table?
A. Select * from table_name; 

Will come up with more tricky questions...!!!!!!